The vegetation of the wetlands has changed significantly since European settlement, having evolved in response to changes in the type and frequency of water inundation, land use practices (agriculture and grazing), fire, changing soil characteristics (salinity), water quality (run-off from irrigation and farming practices) and site topography.


Fivebough Wetlands was once a dominant Black box and Lignum ecosystem, in which Cumbungi was extensive around the wetland basin.


Today the species diversity largely consists of the following predominant species:


Black box – Eucalyptus largiflorens

Grey box – Eucalyptus microcarpa

Weeping Myall or Boree – Acacia pendula

River cooba – Acacia stenophylla


Lignum – Muehlenbeckia florulenta

Dillon bush – Nitraria billardierei

Old man saltbush – Atriplex nummularia

Creeping saltbush – Atriplex semibaccata

Nitre goosefoot – Chenopodium nitrariaceum

Ruby saltbush – Enchylaena tomentosa


Lagoon saltbush – Atriplex suberecta

Small saltbush – Atriplex eardleyae

Climbing saltbush – Einadia nutans

Yellow buttons – Chrysocephalum apiculatum

Sida– Sida spp.

Tall copper burr – Sclerolaena convexula

Black roly poly – Sclerolaena muricata

Swamp dock – Rumex brownii


Water couch – Paspalum distichum

Windmill grass – Chloris truncata

Curly windmill grass – Enteropogon ramosus

Blown grass – Agrostis avenacea

Prairie grass – Bromus catharticus

Barnyard grass – Echinochloa crus-galli

Stink grass – Eragrostis cilianensis

Barley grass – Hordeum leporinum

Ryegrass – Lolium perenne

Paspalum – Paspalum dilatatum


Cumbungi – Typha spp.

Common rush – Juncus usitatus

Common spike rush – Eleocharis acuta

Red Azolla/DuckweedAzolla filiculoides

Dirty dora – Cyperus difformis